Webpage or Piece of Online Content
* if the page names an individual author, cite their name first! *
* if the page was written by a group/organization, use that as the author. *
" if the author and site name are the same, omit site name from citation. *
* if the author is unknown, start with title instead. *
* include a retrieval date when the page's contents could likely change (e.g. Wikis being edited) *
* if date of publication is unknown, use abbreviation (n.d.)
Last name, F. M. [or Group name] (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims. https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims
Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/
National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions. https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions
Electronic or Kindle Book
Last name, F. M. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. URL
Last name, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL
Last name, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)
Last name, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis. (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.
Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students. (Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
For other formats, visit the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab)'s APA Citation Pages.
If DOI has been assigned, include it after the page numbers. If no DOI has been assigned, use URL from which you are accessing the periodical.
Basic form: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyy
Article in Print Journal
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13. *because it is in print, there is no URL / DOI.
Article in Electronic Journal
Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning. Purdue Journal of Service-Learning & International Engagement, 6(1), 11-16. https://doi.org/10.5703/1288284316979
Rivlin, G. (2011, May). The big question. Wired, 19(05), 175-182.
Article in Newspaper
Schultz, S. (2005, December). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, 1A, 2A.
Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control, by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert]. Contemporary Psychology, 38(5), 466-467.
Book, Basic Format
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.
Stoneman, R. (2008). Alexander the Great: A life in legend. Yale University Press.
Edited Book, No Author
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.
Leitch, M. G. & Rushton, C. J. (Eds.). (2019). A new companion to Malory. D. S. Brewer.
Edited Book with Author(s)
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher.
Malory, T. (2017). Le morte d'arthur (P. J. C. Field, Ed.). D. S. Brewer. (Original work published 1469-70)
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (T. Translator, Trans.). Publisher. (original work published YEAR)
Plato. (1989). Symposium (A. Nehamas & P. Woodruff, Trans.). Hackett Publishing Company. (Original work published ca. 385-378 BCE)
Editions (not first); Multi-volume works
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (# edition / Vol. #). Publisher.
Belcher, W. (2019). Writing your journal article in twelve weeks: A guide to academic publishing success (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.
David, A., & Simpson, J. (Eds.). (2006). The Norton anthology of English literature: The Middle Ages (8th ed., Vol. A). W. W. Norton and Company.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of Chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (# ed., pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.
Armstrong, D. (2019). Malory and character. In M. G. Leitch & C. J. Rushton (Eds.), A new companion to Malory (2nd ed., pp. 144-163). D. S. Brewer.